The ADAPT workshop took place in Macau, China, on 09 Oct 2022 at the IEEE ITSC conference with more than 50 international attendees! The ADAPT-Team has successfully participated!


Bitmovin, a leading provider of video streaming infrastructure, and the University of Klagenfurt announced they will collaborate on a two-year joint research project worth €3.3million to develop a climate-friendly adaptive video streaming platform called ‘GAIA’. The Austrian Research Promotion Agency (FFG) will co-fund the project, providing an initial €460,000 in funding for the first year.

Project ‘GAIA’ aims to identify ways to improve sustainability and reduce energy consumption across the end-to-end video streaming chain by

  • Enabling energy awareness and accountability, including benchmarking and predicting energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions across the entire delivery chain, from content creation and server-side encoding to video transmission and client-side rendering.
  • Reducing energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions through advanced analytics and optimizations on all phases of the video delivery chain.

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At Christian Doppler laboratory ATHENA, we offer an internship*) for 2023 for Master Students and we kindly request your applications until the 20th of January 2023 with the following data (in German or English):

  • CV
  • Record of study/transcript (“Studienerfolgsnachweis”)

*) A 3 months period in 2023 (with an exact time slot to be discussed) with the possibility to spend up to 1-month at the industrial partner; 20h per week “Universitäts-KV, Verwendungsgruppe C1, studentische Hilfskraft”

Please send your application by email to

About ATHENA: The Christian Doppler laboratory ATHENA (AdapTive Streaming over HTTP and Emerging Networked MultimediA Services) is jointly proposed by the Institute of Information Technology (ITEC; at Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt (AAU) and Bitmovin GmbH ( to address current and future research and deployment challenges of HAS and emerging streaming methods. AAU (ITEC) has been working on adaptive video streaming for more than a decade, has a proven record of successful research projects and publications in the field, and has been actively contributing to MPEG standardization for many years, including MPEG-DASH; Bitmovin is a video streaming software company founded by ITEC researchers in 2013 and has developed highly successful, global R&D and sales activities and a world-wide customer base since then.

The aim of ATHENA is to research and develop novel paradigms, approaches, (prototype) tools, and evaluation results for the phases

  1. multimedia content provisioning,
  2. content delivery, and
  3. content consumption in the media delivery chain as well as for
  4. end-to-end aspects, with a focus on, but not being limited to, HTTP Adaptive Streaming (HAS).

The new approaches and insights are to enable Bitmovin to build innovative applications and services to account for the steadily increasing and changing multimedia traffic on the Internet.

Vignesh V Menon

2022 Picture Coding Symposium (PCS)

December 7-9, 2022 | San Jose, CA, USA

Conference Website

Vignesh V Menon (Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt),  Hadi Amirpour (Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt), Prajit T Rajendran (Universite Paris-Saclay, France), Mohammad Ghanbari (School of Computer Science and Electronic Engineering, University of Essex, Colchester, UK), and Christian Timmerer (Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt)


In live streaming applications, a fixed set of bitrate-resolution pairs (known as bitrate ladder) is generally used to avoid additional pre-processing run-time to analyze the complexity of every video content and determine the optimized bitrate ladder. Furthermore, live encoders use the fastest available preset for encoding to ensure the minimum possible latency in streaming. For live encoders, it is expected that the encoding speed is equal to the video framerate. However, an optimized encoding preset may result in (i) increased Quality of Experience (QoE) and (ii) improved CPU utilization while encoding. In this light, this paper introduces a Content-Adaptive encoder Preset prediction Scheme (CAPS) for adaptive live video streaming applications. In this scheme, the encoder preset is determined using Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT)-energy-based low-complexity spatial and temporal features for every video segment, the number of
CPU threads allocated for each encoding instance, and the target encoding speed. Experimental results show that CAPS yields an overall quality improvement of 0.83 dB PSNR and 3.81 VMAF with the same bitrate, compared to the fastest preset encoding
of the HTTP Live Streaming (HLS) bitrate ladder using x265 HEVC open-source encoder. This is achieved by maintaining the desired encoding speed and reducing CPU idle time.


2022 IEEE 24th International Workshop on Multimedia Signal Processing (MMSP)

September 26-28, 2022 | Shanghai, China

Conference Website

Hadi Amirpour (Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt), Prajit T Rajendran (Universite Paris-Saclay, Paris, France), Vignesh V Menon (Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt),   Mohammad Ghanbari (School of Computer Science and Electronic Engineering, University of Essex, Colchester, UK)and Christian Timmerer (Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt)


The increasing demand for high-quality and low-cost video streaming services calls for the prediction of video encoding complexity. The prior prediction of video encoding complexity including encoding time and bitrate predictions are used to allocate resources and set optimized parameters for video encoding effectively. In this paper, a light-weight video encoding complexity prediction (VECP) scheme that predicts the encoding bitrate and the encoding time of video with high accuracy is proposed. Firstly, low-complexity Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT)-energy-based features, namely spatial complexity, temporal complexity, and brightness of videos are extracted, which can efficiently
represent the encoding complexity of videos. The latent vectors are also extracted from a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) with MobileNet as the backend to obtain additional features from representative frames of each video to assist the prediction process. The extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost) regression algorithm is deployed to predict video encoding complexity using the extracted features. The experimental results demonstrate that VECP predicts the encoding bitrate with an error percentage of up to 3.47% and encoding time with an error percentage of up to 2.89%, but with a significantly low overall latency of 3.5 milliseconds per frame which makes it suitable for both Video on Demand (VoD) and live streaming applications.

VECP architecture

Vignesh V Menon

2022 IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP)

October 16-19, 2022 | Bordeaux, France

Conference Website


Vignesh V Menon (Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt),  Hadi Amirpour (Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt), Mohammad Ghanbari (School of Computer Science and Electronic Engineering, University of Essex, Colchester, UK)and Christian Timmerer (Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt)


In two-pass encoding, also known as multi-pass encoding, the input video content is analyzed in the first-pass to help the second-pass encoding utilize better encoding decisions and improve overall compression efficiency. In live streaming applications, a single-pass encoding scheme is mainly used to avoid the additional first-pass encoding run-time to analyze the complexity of every video content. This paper introduces an Efficient low-latency Two-Pass encoding Scheme (ETPS) for live video streaming applications. In this scheme, Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT)-energy-based low-complexity spatial and temporal features for every video segment are extracted in the first-pass to predict each target bitrate’s optimal constant rate factor (CRF) for the second-pass constrained variable bitrate (cVBR) encoding. Experimental results show that, on average, ETPS compared to a traditional two-pass average bitrate encoding scheme yields encoding time savings of 43.78% without any noticeable drop in compression efficiency. Additionally, compared to a single-pass constant bitrate (CBR) encoding, it yields bitrate savings of 10.89% and 8.60% to maintain the same PSNR and VMAF, respectively.

ETPS architecture

Title: MOGPlay: A Decentralized Crowd Journalism Application for Democratic News Production

Authors: Ines Rito Lima, Claudia Marinho,Vasco Filipe, Alexandre Ulisses, Nishant Saurabh, Antorweep Chakravorty, Zhiming Zhao, Atanas Hristov, Radu Prodan

2022 IEEE/ACM International Conference on Advances in Social Networks Analysis and Mining (ASONAM)

Abstract: Media production and consumption behaviors are changing in response to  new technologies and demands, giving birth to a new generation of social  applications. Among them, crowd journalism represents a novel way of constructing democratic and trustworthy news relying on ordinary citizens arriving at breaking news locations and capturing relevant videos using their smartphones. The ARTICONF project proposes a trustworthy, resilient, and globally sustainable toolset for developing decentralized applications (DApps). Leveraging the ARTICONF tools, we introduce a new DApp for crowd journalism called MOGPlay. MOGPlay collects and manages audio-visual content generated by citizens and provides a secure blockchain platform that rewards all stakeholders involved in professional news production. Besides live streaming, MOGPlay offers a marketplace for audio-visual content trading among citizens and free journalists with an internal token ecosystem. We discuss the functionality and implementation of the MOGPlay DApp and illustrate three pilot crowd journalism live scenarios that validate the prototype.

We are happy to announce and our congratulations to Dr. Hermann Hellwagner for receiving the appreciation award of Carinthia in the area of natural/technical sciences.


16th International Conference on Signal Image Technology & Internet based Systems – Dijon, France – October 19-21, 2022

Conference Website

Babak Taraghi (Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt, Austria), Selina Zoë Haack (Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt, Austria), and Christian Timmerer (Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt, Austria)

Abstract: HTTP Adaptive Streaming (HAS) is nowadays a popular solution for multimedia delivery. The novelty of HAS lies in the possibility of continuously adapting the streaming session to current network conditions, facilitated by Adaptive Bitrate (ABR) algorithms. Various popular streaming and Video on Demand services such as Netflix, Amazon Prime Video, and Twitch use this method. Given this broad consumer base, ABR algorithms continuously improve to increase user satisfaction. The insights for these improvements are, among others, gathered within the research area of Quality of Experience (QoE). Within this field, various researchers have dedicated their works to identifying potential impairments and testing their impact on viewers’ QoE. Two frequently discussed visual impairments influencing QoE are stalling events and quality switches. So far, it is commonly assumed that those stalling events have the worst impact on QoE. This paper challenged this belief and reviewed this assumption by comparing stalling events with multiple quality and high amplitude quality switches. Two subjective studies were conducted. During the first subjective study, participants received a monetary incentive, while the second subjective study was carried out with volunteers. The statistical analysis demonstrated that stalling events do not result in the worst degradation of QoE. These findings suggest that a reevaluation of the effect of stalling events in QoE research is needed. Therefore, these findings may be used for further research and to improve current adaptation strategies in ABR algorithms.

IEEE Transactions on Network and Service Management (TNSM)

Journal Website

Authors: Reza Farahani (Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt, Austria), Mohammad Shojafar (University of Surry, UK), Christian Timmerer (Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt, Austria), Farzad Tashtarian (Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt, Austria), Mohammad Ghanbari (University of Essex, UK), and Hermann Hellwagner (Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt, Austria)

Abstract: With the ever-increasing demands for high-definition and low-latency video streaming applications, network-assisted video streaming schemes have become a promising complementary solution in the HTTP Adaptive Streaming (HAS) context to improve users’ Quality of Experience (QoE) as well as network utilization. Edge computing is considered one of the leading networking paradigms for designing such systems by providing video processing and caching close to the end-users. Despite the wide usage of this technology, designing network-assisted HAS architectures that support low-latency and high-quality video streaming, including edge collaboration is still a challenge. To address these issues, this article leverages the Software-Defined Networking (SDN), Network Function Virtualization (NFV), and edge computing paradigms to propose A collaboRative edge-Assisted framewoRk for HTTP Adaptive video sTreaming (ARARAT). Aiming at minimizing HAS clients’ serving time and network cost, besides considering available resources and all possible serving actions, we design a multi-layer architecture and formulate the problem as a centralized optimization model executed by the SDN controller. However, to cope with the high time complexity of the centralized model, we introduce three heuristic approaches that produce near-optimal solutions through efficient collaboration between the SDN controller and edge servers. Finally, we implement the ARARAT framework, conduct our experiments on a large-scale cloud-based testbed including 250 HAS players, and compare its effectiveness with state-of-the-art systems within comprehensive scenarios. The experimental results illustrate that the proposed ARARAT methods (i) improve users’ QoE by at least 47%, (ii) decrease the streaming cost, including bandwidth and computational costs, by at least 47%, and (iii) enhance network utilization, by at least 48% compared to state-of-the-art approaches.