Distributed and Parallel Systems

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FFG project “Kärntner Fog” accepted

The project “Kärntner Fog” has been accepted in the BRIDGE funding call of FFG.

Abstract: Kärntner Fog aims to contribute with advanced technologies for the distributed optimized provisioning and operation of 5G applications in Austria. For this purpose, it researches and develops a unique infrastructure testbed called the Carinthian Computing Continuum (C3), consisting of heterogeneous Cloud, Fog, and 5G‐Edge devices orchestrated through novel benchmarking, monitoring, analysis, and provisioning services. The project will validate its results using modern virtual reality and smart city use cases in the 5G Playground Carinthia. The results will give companies a competitive technological advantage in exploring 5G‐compliant applications in preparation for the deployment of an Austrian‐wide 5G network by 2025.

Partners:

Alpen-Adria Universität Klagenfurt, ITEC

Fachhochschule Kärnten

siplan gmbh

Project duration: 36 months

Dragi Kimovski
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Paper accepted in IEEE Transactions on Services Computing (TSC)

The manuscript “Mobility-Aware IoT Application Placement in the Cloud — Edge Continuum” has been accepted for publication in the A* (IF: 5.823) Journal – IEEE Transactions on Services Computing (TSC).

Autors: Dragi Kimovski, Narges Mehran, Christopher Kerth, Radu Prodan

Abstract: The Edge computing extension of the Cloud services towards the network boundaries raises important placement challenges for IoT applications running in a heterogeneous environment with limited computing capacities. Unfortunately, existing works only partially address this challenge by optimizing a single or aggregate objective (e.g., response time), and not considering the edge devices’ mobility and resource constraints. To address this gap, we propose a novel mobility-aware multi-objective IoT application placement (mMAPO) method in the Cloud – Edge Continuum that optimizes completion time, energy consumption, and economic cost as conflicting objectives. mMAPO utilizes a Markov model for predictive analysis of the Edge device mobility and constrains the optimization to devices that do not frequently move through the network. We evaluate the quality of the mMAPO placements using simulation and real-world experimentation on two IoT applications. Compared to related work, mMAPO reduces the economic cost by 28% and decreases the completion time by 80% while maintaining a stable energy consumption.

Nishant Saurabh
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Nishant Saurabh completed his PhD at the University of Innsbruck with a thesis on a “On Semantics and Pareto (Inter-) Dependencies for Resource Management In IaaS Clouds” under the supervision of Prof. Radu Prodan.

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Paper about: Energy Consumption Analysis of R-Based Machine Learning Algorithms for Pandemic Predictions

 

Authors: Shajulin Benedict, Prateek Agrawal, Radu Prodan

Link: Advanced Informatics for Computing Research, CCIS-Springer, 4th ICAICR 2020, Vol. 1393

Abstract: The push for agile pandemic analytic solutions has attained development-stage software modules of applications instead of functioning as full-fledged production-stage applications – i.e., performance, scalability, and energy-related concerns are not optimized for the underlying computing domains. And while the research continues to support the idea that reducing the energy consumption of algorithms improves the lifetime of battery-operated machines, advisable tools in almost any developer setting, an energy analysis report for R-based analytic programs is indeed a valuable suggestion. This article proposes an energy analysis framework for R-programs that enables data analytic developers, including pandemic-related application developers, to analyze the programs. It reveals an energy analysis report for R programs written to predict the new cases of 215 countries using random forest variants. Experiments were carried out at the IoT cloud research lab and the energy efficiency aspects were discussed in the article. In the experiments, ranger-based prediction program consumed 95.8 J.

Nishant Saurabh
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Paper accepted in Elsevier’s Journal of Blockchain: Research and Applications

Authors: Nikita Karandikar, Rockey Abhishek, Nishant Saurabh, Zhiming Zhao, Alexander Lercher, Ninoslav Marina, Radu Prodan, Chunming Rong, Antorweep Chakravorty

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bcra.2021.100016

Abstract: Peak mitigation is of interest to power companies as peak periods may require the operator to over provision supply in order to meet the peak demand. Flattening the usage curve can result in cost savings, both for the power companies and the end users. Integration of renewable energy into the energy infrastructure presents an opportunity to use excess renewable generation to supplement supply and alleviate peaks. In addition, demand side management can shift the usage from peak to off peak times and reduce the magnitude of peaks. In this work, we present a data driven approach for incentive based peak mitigation. Understanding user energy profiles is an essential step in this process. We begin by analysing a popular energy research dataset published by the Ausgrid corporation. Extracting aggregated user energy behavior in temporal contexts and semantic linking and contextual clustering give us insight into consumption and rooftop solar generation patterns. We implement, and performance test a blockchain based prosumer incentivization system. The smart contract logic is based on our analysis of the Ausgrid dataset. Our implementation is capable of supporting 792,540 customers with a reasonably low infrastructure footprint.

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Paper accepted in 17th IEEE eScience conference

Conference: https://escience2021.org/

Title: Where to Encode: A Performance Analysis of x86 and Arm-based Amazon EC2 Instances

Authors: Roland Mathá, Dragi Kimovski, Anatoliy Zabrovskiy, Christian Timmerer and Radu Prodan

Abstract: Video streaming became an undivided part of the Internet. To efficiently utilise the limited network bandwidth it is essential to encode the video content. However, encoding is a computationally intensive task, involving high-performance resources provided by private infrastructures or public clouds. Public clouds, such as Amazon EC2, provide a large portfolio of services and instances optimized for specific purposes and budgets. The majority of Amazon’s instances use x86 processors, such as Intel Xeon or AMD EPYC. However, following the recent trends in computer architecture, Amazon introduced Arm based instances that promise up to 40% better cost performance ratio than comparable x86 instances for specific workloads. We evaluate in this paper the video encoding performance of x86 and Arm instances of four instance families using the latest FFmpeg version and two video codecs. We examine the impact of the encoding parameters, such as different presets and bitrates, on the time and cost for encoding. Our experiments reveal that Arm instances show high time and cost saving potential of up to 33.63% for specific bitrates and presets, especially for the x264 codec. However, the x86 instances are more general and achieve low encoding times, regardless of the codec.

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Paper accepted in Springer’s Journal of Computing

Title: Handover Authentication Latency Reduction using Mobile Edge Computing and Mobility Patterns

Authors: Fatima Abdullah, Dragi Kimovski, Radu Prodan, and Kashif Munir

Abstract: With the advancement in technology and the exponential growth of mobile devices, network traffic has increased manifold in cellular networks. Due to this reason, latency reduction has become a challenging issue for mobile devices. In order to achieve seamless connectivity and minimal disruption during movement, latency reduction is crucial in the handover authentication process. Handover authentication is a process in which the legitimacy of a mobile node is checked when it crosses the boundary of an access network. This paper proposes an efficient technique that utilizes mobility patterns of the mobile node and mobile Edge computing framework to reduce handover authentication latency. The key idea of the proposed technique is to categorize mobile nodes on the basis of their mobility patterns. We perform simulations to measure the networking latency. Besides, we use queuing model to measure the processing time of an authentication query at an Edge servers. The results show that the proposed approach reduces the handover authentication latency up to 54% in comparison with the existing approach.

Link: https://c3.itec.aau.at/index.php/paper-accepted-elsevier-computing/

Prof. Radu Prodan
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FusionCL: a machine-learning based approach for OpenCL kernel fusion to increase system performance

Authors:Yasir Noman Khalid, Muhammad Aleem, Usman Ahmed, Radu Prodan, Muhammad Arshad Islam & Muhammad Azhar Iqbal

Abstract: Employing general-purpose graphics processing units (GPGPU) with the help of OpenCL has resulted in greatly reducing the execution time of data-parallel applications by taking advantage of the massive available parallelism. However, when a small data size application is executed on GPU there is a wastage of GPU resources as the application cannot fully utilize GPU compute-cores. There is no mechanism to share a GPU between two kernels due to the lack of operating system support on GPU. In this paper, we propose the provision of a GPU sharing mechanism between two kernels that will lead to increasing GPU occupancy, and as a result, reduce execution time of a job pool. However, if a pair of the kernel is competing for the same set of resources (i.e., both applications are compute-intensive or memory-intensive), kernel fusion may also result in a significant increase in execution time of fused kernels. Therefore, it is pertinent to select an optimal pair of kernels for fusion that will result in significant speedup over their serial execution. This research presents FusionCL, a machine learning-based GPU sharing mechanism between a pair of OpenCL kernels. FusionCL identifies each pair of kernels (from the job pool), which are suitable candidates for fusion using a machine learning-based fusion suitability classifier. Thereafter, from all the candidates, it selects a pair of candidate kernels that will produce maximum speedup after fusion over their serial execution using a fusion speedup predictor. The experimental evaluation shows that the proposed kernel fusion mechanism reduces execution time by 2.83× when compared to a baseline scheduling scheme. When compared to state-of-the-art, the reduction in execution time is up to 8%.

Link: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00607-021-00958-2

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This paper won the second best paper award at the CCGrid 2021 conference.

Title: “A Two-Sided Matching Model for Data Stream Processing in the Cloud-Fog Continuum” by: Narges Mehran, Dragi Kimovski and Radu Prodan, was virtually presented in the CCgrid2021 conference.

We at @alpenadriauni are proud of Narges and her work in the @EU_H2020 @DataCloud2020 project awarded at cloudbus.org/ccgrid2021/.

Watch award presentation at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aSnzDpd5Kqc

Nishant Saurabh
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Paper accepted in Elsevier’s Journal of Blockchain: Research and Applications

Title: The ARTICONF Approach to Decentralised  Car-sharing 

Authors: Nishant Saurabh (UNI-KLU), Carlos Rubia (Agilia), Anandakumar Palanisamy (BY), Spiros Koulouzis (UvA), Mirsat Sefidanoski (UIST), Antorweep Chakravorty (UiS), Zhiming Zhao (UvA), Aleksandar Karadimce (UIST), Radu Prodan (UNI-KLU)

Abstract: Social media applications are essential for next generation connectivity. Today, social media are centralized platforms with a single proprietary organization controlling the network and posing critical trust and governance issues over the created and propagated content.
The ARTICONF project funded by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 program researches a decentralized social media platform based on a novel set of trustworthy, resilient and globally sustainable tools that address privacy, robustness and autonomy-related promises that proprietary social media platforms have failed to deliver so far. This paper presents the ARTICONF approach to a car-sharing decentralized application (DApp) use case, as a new collaborative peer-to-peer model providing an alternative solution to private car ownership. We describe a prototype implementation of the car-sharing social media DApp and illustrate through real snapshots how the different ARTICONF tools support it in a simulated scenario.