Posts

, ,

Paper accepted: Towards Low Latency Live Streaming: Challenges in a Real-World Deployment

The 13th ACM Multimedia Systems Conference (ACM MMSys 2022)

June 14–17, 2022 |  Athlone, Ireland

Conference Website

Reza Shokri Kalan (Digiturk Company, Istanbul), Reza Farahani (Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt), Emre Karsli (Digiturk Company, Istanbul), Christian Timmerer (Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt), and Hermann Hellwagner (Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt)

Over-the-Top (OTT) service providers need faster, cheaper, and Digital Rights Management (DRM)-capable video streaming solutions. Recently, HTTP Adaptive Streaming (HAS) has become the dominant video delivery technology over the Internet. In HAS, videos are split into short intervals called segments, and each segment is encoded at various qualities/bitrates (i.e., representations) to adapt to the available bandwidth. Utilizing different HAS-based technologies with various segment formats imposes extra cost, complexity, and latency to the video delivery system. Enabling an integrated format for transmitting and storing segments at Content Delivery Network (CDN) servers can alleviate the aforementioned issues. To this end, MPEG Common Media Application Format (CMAF) is presented as a standard format for cost-effective and low latency streaming. However, CMAF has not been adopted by video streaming providers yet and it is incompatible with most legacy end-user players. This paper reveals some useful steps for achieving low latency live video streaming that can be implemented for non-DRM sensitive contents before jumping to CMAF technology. We first design and instantiate our testbed in a real OTT provider environment, including a heterogeneous network and clients, and then investigate the impact of changing format, segment duration, and Digital Video Recording (DVR) window length on a real live event. The results illustrate that replacing the transport stream (.ts) format with fragmented MP4 (.fMP4) and shortening segments’ duration reduces live latency significantly.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Keywords: HAS, DASH, HLS, CMAF, Live Streaming, Low Latency

 

Hadi
, ,

Paper accepted – Improving Per-title Encoding for HTTP Adaptive Streaming by Utilizing Video Super-resolution

Title: Improving Per-title Encoding for HTTP Adaptive Streaming by Utilizing Video Super-resolution

Link: IEEE Visual Communications and Image Processing (VCIP 2021) 5-8 December 2021, Munich, Germany

Authors: Hadi Amirpour (Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt), Hannaneh Barahouei Pasandi (Virginia Commonwealth University), Mohammad Ghanbari (School of Computer Science and Electronic Engineering, University of Essex, Colchester, UK), and Christian Timmerer (Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt)

Abstract: In per-title encoding, to optimize a bitrate ladder over spatial resolution, each video segment is downscaled to a set of spatial resolutions and they are all encoded at a given set of bitrates. To find the highest quality resolution for each bitrate, the low-resolution encoded videos are upscaled to the original resolution, and a convex hull is formed based on the scaled qualities. Deep learning-based video super-resolution (VSR) approaches show a significant gain over traditional approaches and they are becoming more and more efficient over time.  This paper improves the per-title encoding over the upscaling methods by using deep neural network-based VSR algorithms as they show a significant gain over traditional approaches. Utilizing a VSR algorithm by improving the quality of low-resolution encodings can improve the convex hull. As a result, it will lead to an improved bitrate ladder. To avoid bandwidth wastage at perceptually lossless bitrates a maximum threshold for the quality is set and encodings beyond it are eliminated from the bitrate ladder. Similarly, a minimum threshold is set to avoid low-quality video delivery. The encodings between the maximum and minimum thresholds are selected based on one Just Noticeable Difference. Our experimental results show that the proposed per-title encoding results in a 24% bitrate reduction and 53% storage reduction compared to the state-of-the-art method.

Christian Timmerer
,

ACM NOSSDAV’19 paper on “Bandwidth Prediction in Low-Latency Chunked Streaming” accepted

Authors: Abdelhak Bentaleb, Christian Timmerer, Ali C. Begen, and Roger Zimmermann

Abstract: HTTP adaptive streaming (HAS) with chunked transfer encoding can be used to reduce latency without sacrificing the coding ef- ficiency. While this allows a media segment to be generated and delivered at the same time, it also causes grossly inaccurate bandwidth measurements, leading to incorrect bitrate selections. To overcome this effect, we design a novel Adaptive bitrate scheme for Chunked Transfer Encoding (ACTE) that leverages the unique nature of chunk downloads. It uses a sliding window to accurately measure the available bandwidth and an online linear adaptive filter to predict the available bandwidth into the future. Results show that ACTE achieves 96% measurement accuracy, which translates to a 64% reduction in stalls and a 27% increase in video quality.

Acknowledgment: This research has been supported in part by the Singapore Ministry of Education Academic Research Fund Tier 1 under MOE’s official grant number T1 251RES1820 and the Austrian Research Promotion Agency (FFG) under the Next Generation Video Streaming project “PROMETHEUS”.

Keywords: HAS; ABR; DASH; CMAF; low-latency; HTTP chunked transfer encoding; bandwidth measurement and prediction; RLS.

Link: http://nossdav.org/2019/