Paper accepted: HEFTLess: A Bi-Objective Serverless Workflow Batch Orchestration on the Computing Continuum

Authors: Reza Farahani, Narges Mehran, Sashko Ristov, and Radu Prodan

Venue: IEEE International Conference on Cluster Computing (CLUSTER), Kobe, Japan, 24-27 September

Abstract: Extending cloud computing towards fog and edge computing yields a heterogeneous computing environment known as computing continuum. In recent years, increasing demands for scalable, cost-effective, and streamlined maintenance services have led application and service providers to prefer serverless models over monolithic and serverful processing. However, orchestrating the computing continuum in complex application workflows of serverless functions, each with distinct requirements, introduces new resource management and scheduling
challenges. This paper introduces an orchestration service for concurrent serverless workflow processing across the computing continuum called HEFTLess. HEFTLess uses two deployment modes tailored to serve each workflow function: predeployed and undeployed. We formulate the problem as a Binary Linear Programming (BLP) optimization model, incorporating multiple groups of constraints to minimize the overall completion time and monetary cost of executing workflow batches. Inspired by the Heterogeneous Earliest Finish Time (HEFT) algorithm, we
propose a lightweight serverless workflow scheduling heuristic to cope with the high optimization time complexity in polynomial time. We evaluate HEFTLess using two machine learning-based serverless workflows on a real computing continuum testbed, including AWS Lambda and 325 combined on-promise and cloud instances from Exoscale, distributed across five geographic locations. The experimental results confirm that HEFTLess outperforms state-of-the-art methods in terms of both workflow batch completion time and cost.